QuickTimeVR

Object movie

2.0M

24.0M

QuickTimeVR

Panorama movie

500K

QuickTimeVR

Panorama movie

500K

QuickTimeVR

Panorama movie

500K

QuickTimeVR

Panorama movie

500K

Still image

Reconstruction view

320 x 240

640 x 480

1250 x 900

Still image

Reconstruction view

320 x 240

640 x 480

1250 x 900

Still image

Reconstruction view

320 x 240

640 x 480

1250 x 900

Still image

Reconstruction view

320 x 240

640 x 480

1250 x 900

Still image

Reconstruction view

320 x 240

640 x 480

1250 x 900

Still image

Reconstruction view

320 x 240

640 x 480

1250 x 900

Concordia, Aedes
Temple on west side of Forum; housing cult honoring civic harmony
Reconstructed state: Building as first dedicated on site

Reconstruction issues

Alternate Representations of the Facade

A coin dating from the reign of Tiberius depicts the Tiberian reconstruction, see Claridge (1998) pg. 77 fig. 21. This coin provided evidence for window size and location.

 (Level of certainty: medium)

Building the Approach

Though the form of the front staircase was the subject of much discussion and many forms were possible, there was no conflicting evidence which could lead to alternative reconstructions. A best possible, least controversial solution was decided upon.

 (Level of certainty: low)

Modifications suggested by review of the Scientific Committee

The design details of the cella were reviewed and improved with input by R. Scott and C. Giulliani.

 (Level of certainty: medium)

Sources for Reconstruction

Stored in the Tabularium is a large piece of entablature from the temple. Much of the detail on this piece is well preserved and was used on the digital model.

 (Level of certainty: high)

Sources for Reconstruction

Little but the foundation and core of concrete and tufa remains of the Temple of Concord, and even this has been decimated by robber tunnels and excavation trenches.

 (Level of certainty: high)

Original construction methods

Overall construction (Level of certainty: medium)

1 Foundation (Level of certainty: high)

Concrete rubble core survives; it was surrounded by blocks of tufa.

1.1 Front staircase (Level of certainty: low)

Access stairs do not survive; they may have been lateral or (as shown in the reconstruction) frontal (as attested by coins: BMCEmp I, 137, nr. 116, 132; BMCEmp VI, 144 nr. 307). The coins show that statues of Mercury and Hercules (not reconstructed in the model) stood on the sides of the staircase.

2 Fašade-main (Level of certainty: medium)

Coins (BMCEmp I, 137, nr. 116, 132; BMCEmp VI, 144 nr. 307) provide an illustration of the main fašade, which was hexastyle Corinthian.

2.1 Fabric of building (Level of certainty: high)

Blocks of travertine, fragments of which survive in the southwest corner.

2.2 Surface covering (Level of certainty: medium)

Restored with white marble revetment.

2.3 Decorative elements (Level of certainty: high)

Cornice was modeled on the Luna marble fragment displayed in the Capitoline Museums. Coins (BMCEmp I, 137, nr. 116, 132; BMCEmp VI, 144 nr. 307) provide an illustration of the sculpture decorating the main façade (not reconstructed in the model). Atop the pediment were statues identified by A. M. Ferroni (LTUR, vol. 1 [Rome 1993] 318) as a central female group (possibly consisting of Concordia, Pax, and Salus), flanked by Tiberius and Drusus holding spears and two acroterial figures of Victory. Over the side halls were two other female figures.

3 Fašade-side 2 (Level of certainty: medium)

See Fašade-main

4 Fašade-side 3 (Level of certainty: medium)

See Fašade-main

5 Fašade-side 4 (Level of certainty: low)

No evidence survives and in view of its position against the Tabularium, it is unclear how the design was handled.

6 Floor (Level of certainty: medium)

6.1 Bedding (Level of certainty: high)

Mortar on concrete

6.2 Pavement (Level of certainty: medium)

Several fragments of the marble pavement of the porch and cella survive; the porch flooring has been reconstructed in marble of neutral white color and pattern.

7 Doorway(s) (Level of certainty: medium)

Marble surround frame, bronze doors. Main door is based on the preserved Curia door in San Giovanni in Laterano. The threshold survives in part and was paved in Porta Santa marble.

8 Interior-Main level (Level of certainty: low)

Almost nothing remains of the interior of the cella. A. M. Ferroni (LTUR, vol. 1 [Rome 1993] 318) describes it as consisting of a high socle punctuated by three large projecting aedicolae and revetted with cornices and orthostats of cipollino, giallo antico and pavonazzetto marble. The socle supported columns of giallo antico whose bases and capitals were sculpted in white marble. One base survives in the Berlin State Museums (inv. 1013); a capital is found in the Forum Antiquarium (inv. 3687). The floor was paved in opus sectile composed of tiles of pavonazzetto, giallo antico and africano. Somewhere in the cella were exhibited three paintings of uncertain size and design: the Marysas Bound of Zeuxis, the Liber Pater of Nicias, and the Cassandra of Theorus (Pliny, NH 35.66, 131, 144). There were also numerous bronze statues and precious objects and gems displayed in the space. The exact dimensions and designs of all these components of the cella are not known, nor do we know where the works of art were located, making reconstruction difficult.

8.1 Walls (Level of certainty: medium)

8.2 Base molding (Level of certainty: low)

8.3 Surface covering (Level of certainty: low)

8.4 Decorative elements (Level of certainty: low)

8.5 Window(s) (Level of certainty: low)

Coins (BMCEmp I, 137, nr. 116, 132; BMCEmp VI, 144 nr. 307) illustrate that the main fašade of each side hall had a large window, the exact dimensions of which are not known. They have been reconstructed with bronze frames with typical Roman design.

8.6 Ceiling (Level of certainty: low)

Nothing survives

8.6.1 Coffering (Level of certainty: low)

Nothing survives; coffers based on Roman architectural norms.

8.6.2 Rafters (Level of certainty: low)

Nothing survives; reconstructed as wood truss.

9 Roof (Level of certainty: low)

Nothing survives; reconstructed with terracotta tile.