Forum (Romanum or Magnum)
Multipurpose civic space and symbolic center of the city
Reconstructed state: Building as first dedicated on site

Known historical events

616 BC to 578 BC Cloaca Maxima built in small blocks of cappellaccio to drain swampy area of Forum by Tarquinius Priscus (Pliny), Tarquinius Superbus (Livy), or in the early fifth century BC (H. Bauer). Sources: Pliny, N.H. 36.24 , Livy 1.38.6, 1.56.2 , H. Bauer, "Cloaca, Cloaca Maxima," LTUR, vol. 1, ed. E.M. Steinby (Rome 1993) 289.
415 BC Tiber flooded. Sources: Livy 4.49.1-2.
390 BC Rome sacked by the Gauls in this year, or possibly in 387. Sources: Polybius 1.6.2, Diod. Sic. 14.115.6, 116.8-9, Livy 5.41.4, 5.41.10, 5.42.1-2, 5.50-.1-2, 5.53.9, 5.55.1-5, 6.4.6, Plutarch, Camillus 32.4-6.
363 BC Tiber flooded. Sources: Livy 7.3.1-2.
338 BC Maeniana, galleries for watching games, built atop the tabernae. Sources: Festus 135, Vitruvius 5.1.1, Isidor, Orig. 15.3.II, Pliny, NH 35.113, Cic. Acad. pr. 2.70.
338 BC Columna Maenia. Sources: Pliny, NH 7 212, Cicero, div. in Caec. 50, pro Sest. 18 and schol. Bob. ad loc., Plutarch, Cato min. 5.
310 BC Tabernae argentariae decorated with gilded shields. Sources: Livy 9.40.16.
306 BC Equus Tremuli erected in front of Temple of Castor and Pollux. Sources: Livy 9.43.22, Cicero Phil. 6.13, Pliny, NH 34.23.
260 BC Columna Rostrata C. Duilii. Sources: Servius ad Georg. 3.29, Pliny, NH 34.20, Quintilian 1.7.12, CIL 6.1300 =31591.
241 BC Tiber flooded. Sources: Orosius Adv. pag. 4.11.5-8.
241 BC Fire in Forum in the area of the Temple of Vesta. Sources: Orosius, Adv. pag. 4.11.8-9.
215 BC Tiber flooded. Sources: Livy 24.9.6.
210 BC Tabernae argentariae destroyed by fire. Sources: Livy 26.27.2.
209 BC Tabernae rebuilt; now called Tabernae novae. Sources: Livy 27.1.16.
202 BC Tiber flooded. Sources: Livy 30.38.10-12.
193 BC Tiber flooded. Sources: Livy 35.9.2-3.
192 BC Tiber flooded. Sources: Livy 35.21.5.
189 BC Tiber flooded. Sources: Livy 38.28.4.
184 BC First phase of the Lacus Curtius. Sources: F. Cairoli Giuliani, P. Verduchi, L'area centrale del Foro Romano (Florence 1987) 113.
184 BC to 183 BC Forum paved in gravel by Cato the Censor. Sources: Pliny, N.H. 19.24, C.F. Giuliani, "Forum Romanum (Lastricati)," LTUR, vol. 2, ed. E.M. Steinby (Rome 1995) 343.
121 BC Fornix Fabianus. Sources: Cicero, pro Planc. 17, de or. 2. 267, in Verr. 1.19, Seneca, dial. 2.1.3, Schol. Pers. 4. 49, CIL 12. 762=6.1303.
80 BC to 79 BC Equus Sullae. Sources: Appian, BC 1.97, Cicero, Phil. 9.13, Velleius Paterculus 2.61, Suetonius, Iul.75, Dio 42.18.
78 BC to 74 BC Forum paved in travertine by either C. Aurelius Cotta (cos. 75) or M. Aurelius Cotta (cos. 74). So-called "Caesarian" galleries built under Forum plaza. Sources: Festus 416 L, C.F. Giuliani, "Forum Romanum (Lastricati)," LTUR, vol. 2, ed. E.M. Steinby (Rome 1995) 343, C.F. Giuliani, P. Verduchi, L'Area centrale del Foro Romano (Florence: Leo S. Olschki Editore, 1987) 61.
72 BC to 69 BC An earthquake struck Rome sometime in this period. Sources: Phlegon Trallianus, apud Photium, cod. 97. .
55 BC to 14 BC Cloaca Maxima rebuilt in opus incertum and opus reticulatum. Sources: H. Bauer, "Cloaca, Cloaca Maxima," LTUR, vol. 1, ed. E.M. Steinby (Rome 1993) 289. .
54 BC Tiber flooded. Sources: Cicero, Ad Quint. fr. 3.7.1, Cassius Dio 39.61.1-2, 39.63.3.
52 BC Fire at funeral of P. Clodius Pulcher destroys Basilica Porcia and Curia Hostilia. Sources: Cicero, Pro Mil. 33, Asconius, in Milonianam, 29.5-7 (Stangl), Pliny, NH 34.21.
50 BC to 44 BC "Caesarian" galleries built under Forum; abandoned in mid-first century A.D. Sources: F. Cairoli Giuliani, P. Verduchi, L'area centrale del Foro Romano (Florence 1987) 53-59.
49 BC An earthquake damages the city. Sources: Cassius Dio 41.14.3.
36 BC Columna Rostrata Augusti. Sources: Appian BC 5.130.
27 BC Tiber flooded city on Jan. 16-17. Sources: Cassius Dio 53.20.1.
23 BC Tiber flooded city. Sources: Cassius Dio 53.33.5.
22 BC Tiber flooded city. Sources: Cassius Dio 54.1.1.
20 BC Milliarium Aureum. Sources: Cassius Dio 54.8.
14 BC Fire damages buildings in Forum, including Temple of Vesta and the Basilica Aemilia. 
14 BC Forum repaved by L. Naevius Surdinus, who also restores the Lacus Curtius and constructs the Tribunal Praetorium on the central pavement (on site wrongly called the "Planter of Marsyas"). Sources: CIL 6.37068, F. Cairoli Giuliani, P. Verduchi, L'area centrale del Foro Romano (Florence 1987) 61, 82-83, 94, 100.
13 BC Tiber flooded city. Sources: Cassius Dio 54.25.2.
5 AD Tiber flooded city. Sources: Cassius Dio 55.22.3, Cassiodorus, Chron. (MGH AA.XI, p. 136. 604).
12 AD Tiber flooded city. Sources: Cassius Dio 56.27.4.
15 AD Earthquake causes damage to the city. Sources: Cassius Dio 57.14.7.
15 AD Tiber flooded city. Sources: Tacitus, Ann. 1.76.1, Cassius Dio 57.14.7-8.
16 AD Arcus Tiberii. Sources: Tacitus, Ann. 2.41.
36 AD Tiber flooded city. Sources: Cassius Dio 58.26.5.
51 AD Earthquake causes damage to the city. Sources: Tacitus, Ann. 12.43.1.
53 AD Earthquake causes damage to the city. Sources: Syncellus, P 336C.
57 AD Earthquake causes damage to the city. Sources: Hieron., Chron. p. 182. .
64 AD Great fire of Nero; Regia and area Vestae damaged. Sources: Tacitus, Ann. 15.41.
69 AD Tiber flooded city. Sources: Tacitus, Hist. I.86.2, Suetonius, Otho 8.3, Plutarch, Otho 4.10.
91 AD Equus Domitiani. Sources: Statius, Silv. 1.1, F. Cairoli Giuliani, P. Verduchi, L'area centrale del Foro Romano (Florence 1987) 118-122.
101 AD to 120 AD Anaglypha Traiani erected in unknown place; in 284-303 relocated near "Planter of Marsyas". Sources: : F. Cairoli Giuliani, P. Verduchi, L'area centrale del Foro Romano (Florence 1987) 79-80.
105 AD Tiber flooded city. Sources: Pliny, Epist. 8.17.2.
147 AD Tiber flooded city. Sources: Fasti Ost. ( I.I.XIII, 1,5,147, p. 207), Hist. Aug., Marcus Anton. 8.4-5.
191 AD Fire in area of the Temple of Vesta. Sources: Hieron., Chron., p. 209.
193 AD to 210 AD Umbilicus Urbis. Sources: Not. Reg. VIII, Eins. 1.5; 7.7; 8.8.
193 AD to 210 AD Forum repaved. Sources: : F. Cairoli Giuliani, P. Verduchi, L'area centrale del Foro Romano (Florence 1987) 184.
193 AD to 210 AD Equus Severi on site of former Equus Domitiani. Sources: Herodian 2.9.6, F. Cairoli Giuliani, P. Verduchi, L'area centrale del Foro Romano (Florence 1987) 122.
217 AD Tiber flooded city. Sources: Cassius Dio 78.25.4-5.
253 AD Tiber flooded city. Sources: Aur. Vict. De Caes. 32.3.
262 AD Earthquake damages city. Sources: Hist. Aug., Gallieni 5.2-4.
283 AD Fire destroys Curia Iulia and Basilica Iulia. Sources: Chron. a. 354, 148 M.
283 AD to 303 AD Imperial rostra built in front of Temple of Iulius Caesar; seven honorary columns and the so-called Column of Phocas built before the Basilica Iulia; five columns placed atop the Rostra Caesaris. Sources: F. Cairoli Giuliani, P. Verduchi, L'area centrale del Foro Romano (Florence 1987) 148-163 (rostra); 166-177 (honorary columns); 186 (rostra Caesaris).
283 AD to 303 AD Forum repaved. Sources: F. Cairoli Giuliani, P. Verduchi, L'area centrale del Foro Romano (Florence 1987) 185-186.
303 AD Vicennalia columns erected before the Curia. Sources: CIL 6.1203·1205, 31261, 31262).
310 AD to 337 AD Equus Constantini. Sources: Not. Reg. VIII, Eins. 1. 7; 7. 8, CIL 6.1141.
352 AD to 353 AD Equus Constantii, near Arch of Septimius Severus. Sources: CIL 6.1158.
371 AD Tiber flooded city. Sources: Amm. Marc. 29.6.17-18.
398 AD Tiber flooded. Sources: D. Manacorda, Museo Nazionale Crypta Balbi (Rome 2000) 20.
398 AD Quadriga in honor of Honorius and Arcadius erected near Curia. Sources: CIL 6.1187, 31256.
405 AD Monument erected near Arch of Septimius Severus by Pisidius Romulus, urban prefect, in honor of Stilicho. Sources: A. Claridge, Rome. An Oxford Archaeological Guide, 84 (Oxford 1998), F. Cairoli Giuliani, P. Verduchi, L'area centrale del Foro Romano (Florence 1987) 77-78.
408 AD Earthquake damages city. Sources: Theophan., Chronogr. p. 124.
410 AD Visigoths under Alaric sack Rome for three days, possibly causing damage to Forum. Sources: Hieron., Epist. 127.12, 128.5, Comment. in Ezechielem 1.3, August. De urbis excidio 2.3, Epist. 127.4, Orosius, Adv. pag. 2.19.14-15, 7.39.15, Procopius Bell Vand. 1.2.13,24.
411 AD Tiber flooded. Sources: D. Manacorda, Museo Nazionale Crypta Balbi (Rome 2000) 20.
443 AD Major earthquake causes damage in city. Sources: Paul., Hist. Rom. 13.16, Fasti Vind. II (MGH AA IX, p. 301, 557).
447 AD Major earthquake causes damage in city. Sources: Marcell., Chron. (MGH AA XI, p. 82).
455 AD Vandals under Gaiseric sack Rome for fourteen days. Sources: Procopius, Bell. Vand. 1.5.3-4, Iordanes, Getica 45.235, Prosp., Chron. 1375 (MGH AA IX, p. 484).
472 AD to 476 AD Monument added to northeast end of Rostra Caesaris by urban prefect Junius Valentinus in honor of emperors Leo and Anthemius. Sources: A. Claridge, Rome. An Oxford Archaeological Guide (Oxford 1998) 84.
472 AD Rome sacked by Ricimer. Sources: Hist. misc. 16.5.
484 AD Major earthquake causes damage in the city in this year or possibly in 508 AD. Sources: D. Manacorda, Museo Nazionale Crypta Balbi (Rome 2000) 20.
555 AD Tiber flooded. Sources: D. Manacorda, Museo Nazionale Crypta Balbi (Rome 2000) 20.
570 AD Tiber flooded. Sources: D. Manacorda, Museo Nazionale Crypta Balbi (Rome 2000) 20.
589 AD Tiber flooded. Sources: D. Manacorda, Museo Nazionale Crypta Balbi (Rome 2000) 20.
608 AD Tallest of tetrarchic honorary columns rededicated to Phocas. Sources: CIL 6.1200.
618 AD Earthquake causes damage in the city. Sources: D. Manacorda, Museo Nazionale Crypta Balbi (Rome 2000) 20.
685 AD Tiber flooded. Sources: D. Manacorda, Museo Nazionale Crypta Balbi (Rome 2000) 20.
725 AD Tiber flooded. Sources: D. Manacorda, Museo Nazionale Crypta Balbi (Rome 2000) 20.
778 AD Tiber flooded. Sources: D. Manacorda, Museo Nazionale Crypta Balbi (Rome 2000) 20.
791 AD Tiber flooded. Sources: D. Manacorda, Museo Nazionale Crypta Balbi (Rome 2000) 20.
801 AD Earthquake causes damage in the city. Sources: D. Manacorda, Museo Nazionale Crypta Balbi (Rome 2000) 20.
847 AD Earthquake causes damage in city, including the area of the Roman Forum. Sources: Liber pont. 2.108.20, M.G. Zanotti, "S. Maria Antiqua," LTUR, vol. 4, ed. E.M. Steinby (Rome 1996) 215.
856 AD Tiber flooded. Sources: D. Manacorda, Museo Nazionale Crypta Balbi (Rome 2000) 20. .
860 AD Tiber flooded. Sources: D. Manacorda, Museo Nazionale Crypta Balbi (Rome 2000) 20.
1230 AD Tiber flooded city on February 1. Sources: inscription formerly posted at Sm. Maria in Traspontina. .
1277 AD Tiber flooded city on November 7. Sources: inscription under Arco dei Banchi (formerly in the church of Ss. Celso e Giuliano).
1379 AD Tiber flooded on Nov. 8 or 9. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1422 AD Tiber flooded city on November 30. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1438 AD Tiber flooded city sometime in November. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1476 AD Tiber flooded on January 8. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1495 AD Tiber flooded on December 5. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1514 AD Tiber flooded on November 13. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1530 AD Tiber flooded on October 8. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1557 AD Tiber flooded from September 14 to 15. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1572 AD Tiber flooded on December 31. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1589 AD Tiber flooded on November 4, 10, and 11. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1598 AD Flood of Tiber to highest level ever recorded on December 24. Sources: inscription in church of S. Spirito in Sassia, Source: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1606 AD Tiber flooded on January 23. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1637 AD Tiber flooded on February 22. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1647 AD Tiber flooded on December 24 (or perhaps November 24 or December 7). Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1660 AD Tiber flooded on November 5. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1686 AD Tiber flooded on November 6. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1695 AD Tiber flooded at some point in the year. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1702 AD Tiber flooded on December 22. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1742 AD Section of the Cloaca Maxima explored. Sources: F. Dei Ficoroni, Le vestigia e rarit di Roma antica (Rome 1744) 43, 74-75.
1742 AD Tiber flooded at some point in the year. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1750 AD Tiber flooded on December 6. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1772 AD Tiber flooded at some point in the year. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1780 AD Tiber flooded at some point in the year. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1805 AD Tiber flooded from January 31 to February 2. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1809 AD Tiber flooded on December 21. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1843 AD Tiber flooded in early February. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1846 AD Tiber flooded on December 10. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1855 AD Tiber flooded from February 17 to 19. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1858 AD Tiber flooded on December 3. Sources: G.P. Gregori, R. Santoleri, et. al., "The analysis of point-like historical data series," in Past, Present, and Future Trends in Geophysical Research (Bremen-Roennebeck, 1988) 146-211.
1870 AD Major flood of Tiber on December 28 leads to project to construct the Tiber River Embankment (1876-1926). Sources: P. Frosini, Il Tevere. Le inondazioni di Roma e i provvedimenti presi dal Governo Italiano per evitarle (Rome 1977).
1871 AD P. Rosa clears the Cloaca Maxima under the Forum plaza. Sources: H. Bauer, "Cloaca, Cloaca Maxima," LTUR, vol. 1, ed. E.M. Steinby (Rome 1993) 288.
1901 AD Tiber flooded the area of the Forum for the last time. Sources: S.B. Platner, T. Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Oxford 1929) 127.