QuickTimeVR

Object movie

2.0M

26.0M

QuickTimeVR

Panorama movie

500K

QuickTimeVR

Panorama movie

500K

QuickTimeVR

Panorama movie

500K

QuickTimeVR

Panorama movie

500K

Still image

Reconstruction view

320 x 240

640 x 480

1250 x 900

Still image

Reconstruction view

320 x 240

640 x 480

1250 x 900

Still image

Reconstruction view

320 x 240

640 x 480

1250 x 900

Still image

Reconstruction view

320 x 240

640 x 480

1250 x 900

Still image

Reconstruction view

320 x 240

640 x 480

1250 x 900

Still image

Reconstruction view

320 x 240

640 x 480

1250 x 900

Still image

View from the Temple of Saturn

320 x 240

640 x 480

1250 x 900

Vespasianus Divus, Templum
Imperial cult temple commemorating the emperors Vespasian and Titus
Reconstructed state: Building as first dedicated on site

Reconstruction issues

Building the Approach

The site of the temple presented a challenge to the Romans and anyone attempting to reconstruct it. The incline of the access road from the Forum to the Capitoline Hill rakes across the formal access stair of the temple. The formal stair of the building is also crowded by the Temple of Saturn requiring exceptionally steep and narrow steps, even by Roman standards. To conserve space, the stairs were cut up into the temple base, creating a very narrow space on the outside passages when the base molding was wrapped back and resolved. The existing physical reconstruction was not extensive nor detailed enough to address the problem. Scientific Committee members C. Giuliani and R. Scott agreed on the sketched solution which was implemented. R. Scott and D. Abernathy of the scientific committee spent time on the site examining the interlacing of the basalt paving and the marble stairs.

 (Level of certainty: high)

Reconstructing from Analogy

The roof structure and cella reflect contemporary design principles.

 (Level of certainty: medium)

Sources for Reconstruction

The columns, entablature and a portion of the base and steps were based on the existing features and the data and built reconstructions of the published building, see De Angeli (1992). The outline dimensions of the temple are taken from the existing footings, with floor levels set by the surviving steps. The inscription is known from the Einsiedeln sylloge (late VIIIth century AD). The remains in situ of the columns and the entablature were sketched in the field. The cast of the entablature fragment exhibited in the Tabularium provided further details.

 (Level of certainty: high)

Original construction methods

Overall construction (Level of certainty: high)

1 Foundation (Level of certainty: high)

Concrete rubble core, tufa faced with travertine and marble blocks

2 Fašade-main (Level of certainty: high)

2.1 Fabric of building (Level of certainty: high)

Brick faced, concrete core, with embedded travertine blocks.

2.2 Surface covering (Level of certainty: high)

Ashlar pattern plaster work (with embedded marble chips) with crisp beveled, white color. Also marble revetment.

2.3 Decorative elements (Level of certainty: high)

Marble entablature pattern is taken from reconstructed fragment exhibited in the Tabularium. The porch columns, fragment of entablature containing the inscription and architectural order have partially survived in situ and were the basis in the façade reconstruction All other decorative elements were destroyed and have been reconstructed on the basis of Roman architectural norms.

3 Façade-side 2 (Level of certainty: high)

See façade-main

4 Façade-side 3 (Level of certainty: high)

See façade-main

5 Façade-side 4 (Level of certainty: high)

See façade-main

6 Floor (Level of certainty: high)

6.1 Bedding (Level of certainty: high)

Mortar on concrete